Niger Seed

Niger scientifically known as Guizotia abyssinica is an oilseed crop that belongs to the Asteraceae family and on Guizotia genus. It is originated in Ethiopia, and its wild ancestor is likely Guizotia schimperi Sch.Bip. It was probably domesticated before 3000 BC in the highlands of Ethiopia, where it is still cultivated as an oilseed crop. The earliest name given to this plant was Verbesina oleifera. The first botanical description of Niger was Polymnia abyssinica L. Apart from Niger it is also known Ramtil, Inga seed, Niger, Niger-seed, blackseed, noog/nug, nyger, nyjer, Niger-seed oil and ramtil oil. Niger also known as Ramtil is an erect, stout, branched annual herb grown for its edible oil and seeds. Plant is average of 1.4 m, but can vary significantly as a result of environmental influences and heights of up to 2 m. It is normally adapted to different environments: cool tropical Eastern Africa, hotter tropical and subtropical lowlands of India and temperate Europe. It grows on almost any soil as long as it is not coarse-textured or extremely heavy. It is usually sown in areas with a rather poor soil or on heavy clay soil under poor cultural conditions.  Niger tolerates waterlogged soils since it grows equally well on either drained soils or waterlogged clays. Niger is extremely resistant to poor oxygen supply in soil because of its ability to develop aerenchymas under these conditions. The stem of Niger is normally smooth to slightly rough and the plant is usually moderately to well branched. Niger stems are hollow and break easily. The number of branches per plant differs from five to twelve and in very dense plant stands fewer branches are formed. Color of the stem varies from dark purple to light green and the stem is about 1.5 cm in diameter at the base. The plant height of Niger is an average of 1.4 m, but can differ significantly as a result of environmental influences and heights of up to 2 m have been reported from the Birr valley of Ethiopia.

Niger Seed /Noug/

Type

Ethiopian origin

Altitude

1600-2700 mt

Color

black

Oil content

38-40%

Food content

Carbohydrate

Purity

98%

Free from fatty acid

1%